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Improvement of electrocatalytic effect in voltammetric sensors based on phthalocyanines
Año del Documento
J. Porphyrins and Phthalocyanines vol.20 p. 1-8
Voltammetric sensors based on phthalocyanines have been used to detect a variety of compounds. In this paper, the state of the art of sensors prepared using classical techniques will be revised. Then, new strategies to improve the performance of the sensors will be described using as example sensors chemically modified with lutetium bisphthalocyanine (LuPc2) dedicated to the detection of phenols of interest in the food industry. Classical LuPc2 carbon paste electrodes can detect phenols such as catechol, caffeic acid or pyrogallol with limits of detection in the range of 10−4–10−5 M. The performance can be improved by using nanostructured Langmuir–Blodgett (LB) or Layer by Layer (LbL) films. The enhanced surface to volume ratio produce an increase in the sensitivity of the sensors. Limits of detection of 10−5–10−7 M are attained, which are one order of magnitude lower than those obtained using conventional carbon paste electrodes. Moreover, these techniques can be used to co-immobilize two electrocatalytic materials in the same device. The limits of detection obtained in LB sensors combining LuPc2/AuNPs or LuPc2/CNT are further improved. Finally, the LB technique has been used to prepare biosensors where a phenol oxydase (such as tyrosinase or lacasse) is immobilized in a biomimetic environment that preserves the enzymatic activity. Moreover, LuPc2 can be co-immobilized with the enzyme in a lipidic film formed by arachidic acid (AA). LuPc2 can act as an electron mediator facilitating the electron transfer. These biomimetic sensors formed by LuPc2/AA/enzyme show Limits of detection of 10−8 M and an enhanced selectivity.
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