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Why the embryo still matters: CSF and the neuroepithelium as interdependent
Año del Documento
Developmental Biology, 2009, p. 1-10
The key focus of this review is that both the neuroepithelium and embryonic cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) work in an integrated way to promote embryonic brain growth, morphogenesis and histiogenesis. The CSF generates pressure and also contains many biologically powerful trophic factors; both play key roles in early brain development. Accumulation of fluid via an osmotic gradient creates pressure that promotes rapid expansion of the early brain in a developmental regulated way, since the rates of growth differ between the vesicles and for different species. The neuroepithelium and ventricles both contribute to this growth but by different and coordinated mechanisms. The neuroepithelium grows primarily by cell proliferation and at the same time the ventricle expands via hydrostatic pressure generated by active transport of Na+ and transport or secretion of proteins and proteoglycans that create an osmotic gradient which contribute to the accumulation of fluid inside the sealed brain cavity. Recent evidence shows that the CSF regulates relevant aspects of neuroepithelial behavior such as cell survival, replication and neurogenesis by means of growth factors and morphogens. Here we try to highlight that early brain development requires the coordinated interplay of the CSF contained in the brain cavity with the surrounding neuroepithelium. The information presented is essential in order to understand the earliest phases of brain development and also how neuronal precursor behavior is regulated.
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