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Suppressive impact of metronomic chemotherapy using UFT and/or cyclophosphamide on mediators of breast cancer dissemination and invasion
Año del Documento
PLoS ONE, 2019, vol. 14, n. 9. 28 p.
Metronomic chemotherapy using the 5-FU prodrug uracil-tegafur (UFT) and cyclophosphamide (CTX) was previously shown to only modestly delay primary tumor growth, but nevertheless markedly suppressed the development of micro-metastasis in an orthotopic breast cancer xenograft model, using the metastatic variant of the MDA-MB-231 cell line, 231/LM2-4. Furthermore, a remarkable prolongation of survival, with no toxicity, was observed in a model of postsurgical advanced metastatic disease. A question that has remained unanswered is the seemingly selective anti-metastatic mechanisms of action responsible for this treatment. We assessed the in vivo effect of metronomic UFT, CTX or their combination, on vascular density, collagen deposition and c-Met (cell mediators or modulators of tumor cell invasion or dissemination) via histochemistry/immunohistochemistry of primary tumor sections. We also assessed the effect of continuous exposure to low and non-toxic doses of active drug metabolites 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), 4-hydroperoxycyclophosphamide (4-HC) or their combination, on 231/LM2-4 cell invasiveness in vitro. In the in vivo studies, a significant reduction in vascular density and p-Met[Y1003] levels was associated with UFT+CTX treatment. All treatments reduced intratumoral collagen deposition. In the in vitro studies, a significant reduction of collagen IV invasion by all treatments was observed. The 3D structures formed by 231/LM2-4 on Matrigel showed a predominantly Mass phenotype under treated conditions and Stellate phenotype in untreated cultures. Taken together, the results suggest the low-dose metronomic chemotherapy regimens tested can suppress several mediators of tumor invasiveness highlighting a new perspective for the anti-metastatic efficacy of metronomic chemotherapy.
Cáncer de mama
Revisión por pares
Canadian Institutes of Health Research (grant 364411)
Version del Editor
Propietario de los Derechos
© 2019 PLOS
Tipo de versión
Except where otherwise noted, this item's license is described as Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 Internacional