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Influence of marine hydrocolloids on extruded and native wheat flour pastes and gels
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Extruded and native wheat flours were combined with agars (gracilaria and gelidium) and carrageenans (κ-carrageenan and ι-carrageenan) to modify their paste and gel properties. Combinations of extruded flours with hydrocolloids produced an increase in the hydration properties (swelling volume and water holding and water binding capacities). All hydrocolloids (particularly ι-carrageenan) also produced an increase in hydration properties after combination with native flours. With regard to the pasting properties of native flours combinations, all hydrocolloids produced an increase in peak viscosity (particularly gelidium agar), but only agars decreased the onset temperature of gelatinization and increased breakdown, indicating a different mechanism of action. In the presence of extruded flour, the incorporation of hydrocolloids increased the cold viscosity of flours in very different ways depending on the hydrocolloid. Both native and extruded flours exhibited higher G’ and G’’ values and a lower tanafter the incorporation of carrageenans, which, together with the lower dependence on frequency, would produce stiffer and more stable pastes/gels. Based on gel properties, greatest hardness with native and extruded flours was achieved by the incorporation of carrageenans. In general, carrageenans, besides producing stiffer and more stable pastes, gave rise to harder and clearer gels compared to those made with agar, for both their combination with extruded and native wheat flours. Meanwhile, pastes made with combinations of extruded flours and agar showed higher thixotropy.
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