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Challenges in care of trauma patient in Spain. The need for implementation of scientific evidence including secondary prevention
Año del Documento
Medicina Intensiva. 2014; 8(6):386-90
The mortality of trauma patients has improved significantly in recent decades due to a combination of factors: medical care, educational campaigns and structural changes. Generalization of both out-of hospital emergence medical services and the hospital care in specific centers for traumatized has undoubtedly contributed to this decline, but other factors such as periodic campaigns to prevent workplace and traffic accidents, as well as improvements in the road network have played a key role. The challenge now is to contain mortality, for which is essential an analysis of the situation to detect potential areas of improvement. The application of diagnostic or therapeutic actions with scientific evidence is associated with lower mortality, but as in other areas of medicine, the application of scientific evidence in trauma patients is barely 50%. Moreover, nearly 90% of trauma deaths occur in the crash site or during the first 72 h of hospitalization, the vast majority as a result of injuries incompatible with life. In these circumstances it is clear that prevention is the most cost-effective activity. As medical practitioners, our role in prevention is mainly focused on the secondary prevention to avoid recidivism, for which it is necessary to identify the possible risk factors (frequently alcohol, illegal drugs, psychotropic medication, etc.) and implement a brief motivational intervention. This activity can reduce recidivism by nearly 50%. In Spain, the activity in this field is negligible; therefore, measures should be implemented for dissemination of secondary prevention in trauma.
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