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The role of NADPH oxidase in carotid body arterial chemoreceptors
Año del Documento
Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology 157 (2007) 45–54
O2-sensing in the carotid body occurs in neuroectoderm-derived type I glomus cells where hypoxia elicits a complex chemotransduction cascade involving membrane depolarization, Ca2+ entry and the release of excitatory neurotransmitters. Efforts to understand the exquisite O2-sensitivity of these cells currently focus on the coupling between local PO2 and the open-closed state of K+-channels. Amongst multiple competing hypotheses is the notion that K+-channel activity is mediated by a phagocytic-like multisubunit enzyme, NADPH oxidase, which produces reactive oxygen species (ROS) in proportion to the prevailing PO2. In O2-sensitive cells of lung neuroepithelial bodies (NEB), multiple studies confirm that ROS levels decrease in hypoxia, and that EM and K+-channel activity are indeed controlled by ROS produced by NADPH oxidase. However, recent studies in our laboratories suggest that ROS generated by a non-phagocyte isoform of the oxidase are important contributors to chemotransduction, but that their role in type I cells differs fundamentally from the mechanism utilized by NEB chemoreceptors. Data indicate that in response to hypoxia, NADPH oxidase activity is increased in type I cells, and further, that increased ROS levels generated in response to low-O2 facilitate cell repolarization via specific subsets of K+-channels.
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