Wine lees are rich in anthocyanins (AC), natural colorants with health promoting properties. The extraction kinetics of AC from different wine lees in conventional solid-liquid extraction were studied for the first time. The influence of parameters such as temperature, solid-liquid ratio (RS-L) and type of solvent (hydro-alcoholic mixtures) was also studied. Furthermore, microwaves (MW) and ultrasounds (US) were used as pre-treatments (a prior step to the conventional extraction) in order to increase AC yield. Maximum extraction yield (2.78 mgMALVIDIN-EQUIVALENTS/gDRY-LEES) was achieved after 15 minutes at 25ºC, with a RS-L of 1/10 (g/mL) and with a 50%vol. ethanol mixture. When MW were used AC extraction yield was doubled (6.20 mgMALVIDIN-EQUIVALENTS/gDRY-LEES) and the required time to achieve a constant yield was reduced (from 15 min to 90s). Meanwhile, US only shortened extraction time in less proportion (from 15 to 5 min). Putative identification of main extract compounds was performed by LC/MS-MS.
wine lees anthocyanin extraction kinetic study microwave pre-treatmetn ultrasound pre-treatment